), Understanding and teaching the intuitive mind (pp. (2002). Similarly, in Mississippi, teachers who hold a Middle School Interdisciplinary Endorsement must complete 2 areas of content concentration consisting of a minimum of 18 credit hours in each area. 0000003955 00000 n Subject matter preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. In V. Richardson (Ed. 0000021245 00000 n In the previous section we described the forms of knowledge that excellent science teachers draw on to inform instruction. Her experiences in the summer institute were systematically linked to the kinds of experiences and discussions she developed with her students. If college courses were aligned with school curriculum and if higher quality measures of student achievement were available, one might find that there are no threshold effects or that they must be higher than suggested by these studies. Kim found that the urban systemic initiatives had demonstrable effects on teacher practice and student learning outcomes in both mathematics and science. 0000015714 00000 n Working in urban schools. But they require informed, professional teachers who make key decisions to structure and support student learning. When teachers work collectively in teams, work groups, or as a department, their efforts can yield important instructional results and measurable effects on student learning. In Maine, which offers a K-8 certificate, teachers must have at least 6 semester hours in science. Teacher leaders, for example, were a central component in 14 of 19 districts included in Kim and colleagues’ (2001) evaluation of the urban systemic initiatives. It is a matter of making sure that every aspect of the school’s functioning is organized to advance its stated purposes. Kesidou, S., and Roseman, J.E. Block, J., and Burns, R. (1976). Teacher professional development can serve as a context for helping them understand students’ ideas about the subject matter to inform their teaching. (2002). Instructional program coherence: What it is and why it should guide school improvement policy. In C. Livingston (Ed. These kits can facilitate teaching science as practice, although they are limited in some important respects. Using the right instructional strategies for science can help students to stay interested in science even after elementary school (where it is usually a favorite subject among students). While the logic of subject matter knowledge for teaching is persuasive, there is almost no research on the empirical link between specialized teacher subject matter knowledge and student learning.2 More than three decades of research have resulted in distinct portraits of expert/novice teachers’ knowledge (Munby, Russell, and Martin, 2001) and case studies of teachers’ acquisition of PCK (e.g., Zembal-Saul, Blumenfeld, and Krajcik, 2000; Smith and Neale, 1989). Creating the conditions for scientific literacy: A re-examination. We use examples to illustrate how the features listed above are enacted in professional development and to provide further evidence of the teacher and student learning effects of well-designed teacher learning opportunities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Teachers’ knowledge and how it develops. Useful information would include evidence of their effectiveness with similar student populations, careful analysis of apparent alignment with state standards, and clear indications of the skills and training their teachers would need in order to use these materials effectively. Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. (1999). New York: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future and Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Science Education, 89, 779-802. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(4), 297-321. Author: ... be lengthy. to this finding because it points both to a potential stumbling point for instructional reform and a topic worthy of further research. (1983). Smardon, R. (2004). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. University researchers’ inchoate critiques of science teaching: Implications for the content of preservice science teacher education. Women’s science learning from the margins. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(4), 318-339. Helping English learners increase achievement through inquiry-based science instruction. Accordingly, skillful teachers need to apply their knowledge flexibly in practice in response to this variability (Putnam and Borko, 2000). Tucker labels these conditions coherent instructional systems, and he goes on to say that true coherence requires more than formal alignment of standards, curriculum, and assessments. Educational Researcher, February, 4-14. 0000010499 00000 n This important area of emerging research is in its infancy, but it may ultimately provide important guidance for policy and practice. (Research Report No. Our participants were four elementary teachers from a public charter school located in the 17 Teaching Principles of Effective Instruction. Lee, O., Deaktor, R.A., Hart, J.E., Cuevas, P., and Enders, C. (2005). In Chapter 9 we argued that quality science instruction includes exploration of meaningful scientific problems, and that teachers actively structure and guide students’ learning experiences through these (even when excellent curriculum materials are available). Monk (1994) found similar effects in mathematics and physical sciences but not in the life sciences. In a general sense, a great deal is known about the characteristics of such opportunities for teacher learning. What large-scale survey research tells us about teacher effects on student achievement: Insights from the prospects study of elementary schools. This work rests on the proposition that teaching is an inherently human practice, that people all continuously are teaching one another, and in so doing they develop working (although often tacit) notions of pedagogy. Borko, H. (2005). Among the more rigorous studies of professional development for teachers are those of mathematics reforms in California (Cohen and Hill, 1998, 2001; Wilson, 2003); studies of District #2 in New York City (Elmore and Burney, 1997; Stein and D’Amico, 1998); a longitudinal study of sustained professional development by the Merck Institute for Science Education (Corcoran, McVay, and Riordan, 2003); the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded studies of systemic reform in mathematics and science (Supovitz and Turner, 2000; Weiss et al., 2003); and evaluations of the federal Eisenhower mathematics and science professional development program (Garet et al., 1999). Science Education, 77, 301-317. (1997). Furthermore, many graduate without fundamentally changing their beliefs and assumptions, despite their experiences in teacher preparation programs. 159-165). M. Cochran-Smith and K.M. More than the sum of knowledge about science, learners, and learning, teacher knowledge is qualitatively distinct from that of mature nonteachers and disciplinary experts. Working on different modules at different times of the year could complicate and weaken collaborations. Wilson, S.M., and Berne, J. Elby, A. These results may have been affected by the high percentages of high school science teachers who teach out of their field, that is, a teacher with a biology degree teaching chemistry or physics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Teach your students about writing instructions with our wonderful range of writing instructions resources. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (2000). In the following year, researchers found that these focused interventions on key topics resulted in positive changes in teachers’ self-report of understanding and comfort with the topic, observed changes in instructional practice (the teachers enacted the benchmarking lessons), and statistically significant improvements in student learning in the second student cohort on key topics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(8), 857-887. Although broad in scope, research on subject matter knowledge for teaching is primarily focused on two areas—teachers’ knowledge of students’ preconceptions and misconceptions of science and instructional strategies or representations for teaching science—and these categories are frequently used to describe the literature base (see, e.g., Grossman, Schoenfeld, and Lee, 2005; Hill, Rowan, and Ball, 2005; Smith, 1998; van Driel, Verloop, and de Vos, 1998). 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