The confined space in the tunnel also limits the machinery that can be used, but specialized tunnel-boring machines are now available to overcome this challenge. U.S. Pat. [58] Underground stations, especially deep-level ones, increase the overall transport time: long escalator rides to the platforms mean that the stations can become bottlenecks if not adequately built. Maps help users understand the interconnections between different parts of the system; for example, they show the interchange stations where passengers can transfer between lines. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that other configurations of elevated guideway 3a and elevated bus 4 are possible in which the guideway 3a cantilevers the elevated bus over the road traffic lanes 5. Soon, Hyderabad may get an Elevated Bus Rapid Transit System! It is often used for new systems in areas that are planned to fill up with buildings after the line is built. A typical timing cycle for movable platform 7 is 60 to 90 seconds: ten seconds to rise meet the elevated rapid bus 4, twenty to thirty seconds to unload and load the bus from the platform, ten seconds to descend to sidewalk level 6, then ten to twenty seconds to unload exiting passengers through doors 22 and 22′, followed by loading of boarding passengers for the next bus through entry door 23 from control room 21 (See FIG. In the downtown, core the line is usually constructed underground as the public streets are occupied by motor vehicles and privately owned land is too expensive to acquire for an elevated track right-of-way and stations. From boarding at elevated platforms to real-time bus arrival updates and bus-only lanes, ORBT riders experience a smooth, efficient and safe journey to and from downtown Omaha. Compared to other modes of transport, rapid transit has a good safety record, with few accidents. can be seen as the substitute for the city's rapid transit system providing frequent mass transit within city. Advertisement panels 29 are mountable to end supports 8 for movable platform 7 at each lift station 9 at an angle to the street to maximize exposure of advertising to traffic in lanes 5 of the street. Some urban rail lines are built to a loading gauge as large as that of main-line railways; others are built to smaller and have tunnels that restrict the size and sometimes the shape of the train compartments. Underground tunnels move traffic away from street level, avoiding delays caused by traffic congestion and leaving more land available for buildings and other uses. The Bus Rapid Transit system is the most widely used form of transportation in Curitiba, used by approximately 75% of travelers. For lines without a number like Bundang line it will have an alphanumeric code. Generally these rail lines need to be built on wide parcels of low-priced land often away from the households of regular public transit users. [1][2][3] Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort,[4] and which is often grade-separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. An elevated bus 4 for carrying passengers is movable along the elevated guideway 3a above a road lane 5 on which normal vehicular traffic moves. >> IT IS GOING TO BE SO VITALLY IMPORTANT TO THE VENUES … Heavy rapid transit trains might have six to twelve cars, while lighter systems may use four or fewer. [25] Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities, particularly Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. The 9.5-mile Metrorail Purple Line would run along NW 27th Avenue to the Broward County line, with a stop at Hard Rock Stadium and connecting to the existing Metrorail system. Most systems are publicly owned, by either local governments, transit authorities or national governments. Each passengers lift station 9 includes a movable platform 7 that moves between a lowered position at sidewalk level 6 to a raised position at the level of elevated bus 4. The opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit. As of March 2018 , 212 cities have built rapid transit systems. Elevated railways are a cheaper and easier way to build an exclusive right-of-way without digging expensive tunnels or creating barriers. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient high capacity rapid bus system that can be built in a city street to replace a heavily used fixed route bus service operating in road traffic. [43] For example, on the Singapore MRT, Changi Airport MRT station has the alphanumeric code CG2, indicating its position as the 2nd station on the Changi Airport branch of the East West Line. [69][71] Also, an efficient transit system can decrease the economic welfare loss caused by the increase of population density in a metropolis.[72]. In many cities, metro networks consist of lines operating different sizes and types of vehicles. The present invention provides an efficient configuration of urban rapid transit components that overcomes the capacity limitation of a fixed route public bus service operating in dedicated lanes in road traffic. For example, lift station 9 may be located below street level at an underground facility such as a shopping mall or parking lot in which case the movable platform may move from a lower level below ground to the elevated bus via an opening in the curb lane at street level. Typical capacity lines allow 1,200 people per train, giving 36,000 people per hour. This ignores both heavy capital costs incurred in building the system, which are often subsidized with soft loans[75] and whose servicing is excluded from calculations of profitability, as well as ancillary revenue such as income from real estate portfolios. A power source room 24 is present within lift station to house equipment for powering the components of the system. Conventional freight elevator technology such as hydraulic, pneumatic or winch and pulley system or other arrangements can be used to raise and lower platform 7. One example is the London Underground which has acquired the informal term "tube train" due to its cylindrical cabin shape. Rapid transit is sometimes seen as an alternative to an extensive road transport system with many motorways;[69] the rapid transit system allows higher capacity with less land use, less environmental impact, and a lower cost. Over the past three decades public transit bus systems have been losing market share of commuter trips to the private motor vehicle, which in turn contributes to traffic congestion, air pollution, and energy consumption in large urban areas. Both new and upgraded tram systems allow faster speed and higher capacity, and are a cheap alternative to construction of rapid transit, especially in smaller cities. Although the present invention has been described in some detail by way of example for purposes of clarity and understanding, it will be apparent that certain changes and modifications may be practised within the scope of the appended claims. A rail rapid transit lines requires special route engineering studies to determine where the track-way structures and stations can be built with the least amount of impact on the urban environment. Conventional fixed route buses generally move in the curb lane 2. As the elevated bus 4 is suspended above the traffic lanes 5, the width of the passenger cabin may be increased by 30% over a conventional city bus because the width of the elevated bus 4 is not restricted to the width of the standard urban traffic lanes 5. Because of this, only three stations out of nearly 60 are built near ground level and three more above the ground. The elevated rail and monorail systems of prior art do not solve the problems of constructing the trackway and elevated passenger loading platforms in a city street without impacting private property by the proximity of the transit vehicle to a building facade or having to acquire private property to access said platforms. Light metro is a subclass of rapid transit that has the speed and grade separation of a "full metro" but is designed for smaller passenger numbers. They are most common in Germany with the name Stadtbahn.[52]. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. © 2004-2020 [52] Crew sizes have decreased throughout history, with some modern systems now running completely unstaffed trains. Here, a "passenger service agent" (formerly called "train captain") would ride with the passengers rather than sit at the front as a driver would, but would have the same responsibilities as a driver in a GoA 2 system. generation, Side-mounted monorail transportation system, Passenger station for elevated railway system, Method of transferring passengers from vehicles to a station, UNIVERSAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM BASED ON A CABLE SUSPENDED DUO-RAIL RAILROAD, <- Previous Patent (Rapid deflagration c...). [21] In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems, particularly those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Light metros are typically used as feeder lines into the main rapid transit system. As for larger trains, the Paris Métro has human drivers on most lines but runs automated trains on its newest line, Line 14, which opened in 1998. The Chicago 'L' has most of its lines converging on The Loop, the main business, financial, and cultural area. 1, there is shown a preferred embodiment of the high capacity elevated rapid bus system according to the present invention useful in increasing the hourly passenger capacity and decreasing the passenger trip time of a public transit bus route. 5 shows the fixed ground level portion 9a of the lift station in plan view with control room entry door 19 and exit doors 22 facing sidewalk 6. The highest attained capacity is 80,000 people per hour by the MTR Corporation in Hong Kong. The principal changes that come with BRT are two dedicated center lanes on Colfax for the bus beginning at the Denver-Aurora border … [38], Rapid transit topologies are determined by a large number of factors, including geographical barriers, existing or expected travel patterns, construction costs, politics, and historical constraints. The first network to install PSDs on an already operational system was Hong Kong's MTR, followed by the Singapore MRT. Some stations use platform screen doors to increase safety by preventing people falling onto the tracks, as well as reducing ventilation costs. The beams guide the buses along the existing fixed route service that is being upgraded to the carrying capacity of an elevated rail rapid transit system. The West Island Line, an extension of the MTR Island Line serving western Hong Kong Island, opened in 2015, has two stations (Sai Ying Pun and HKU) situated over 100 metres (330 ft) below ground level, to serve passengers on the Mid-levels. Elevated guideways were popular around the beginning of the 20th century, but fell out of favor; they came back into fashion in the last quarter of the century—often in combination with driverless systems, for instance Vancouver's SkyTrain, London's Docklands Light Railway,[56] the Miami Metrorail, and the Bangkok Skytrain. Bus or tram feeder systems transport people to rapid transit stops. By pressing two "start" buttons the train would then move automatically to the next station. No. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Shenzhen Metro, the Delhi metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR and the Singapore MRT.[13]. [46][47] Security measures include video surveillance, security guards, and conductors. The older Line 1 was subsequently converted to unattended operation by 2012, and it is expected that Line 4 will follow by 2019. 3 is another cross-sectional view of a street showing the elements of the elevated transit system of the present invention arranged on the streetscape and anchored in curb lane 2 adjacent to sidewalk 6. In the past, when crowded streetcars were running bumper to bumper, usually in the downtown, a city had the customer base to justify building a subway system. RITES, a public sector undertaking of Indian R FIG. The introduction of powered doors around 1920 permitted crew sizes to be reduced, and trains in many cities are now operated by a single person. An elevated transit system comprising: an elevated guideway positioned in a curb lane adjacent to a public sidewalk in a street, the elevated guideway defining a travel route; an elevated bus for carrying passengers movable along the elevated guideway; and a passenger lift station for moving passengers between the public sidewalk and the elevated bus, the passenger lift station being positioned in the … [25], A premetro design means that an underground rapid transit system is built in the city center, but only a light rail or tram system in the suburbs. The main components are color-coded lines to indicate each line or service, with named icons to indicate stations. Systems are generally built to allow evacuation of trains at many places throughout the system.[44][45]. The farebox recovery ratio, a ratio of ticket income to operating costs, is often used to assess operational profitability, with some systems including Hong Kong's MTR Corporation,[73] and Taipei[74] achieving recovery ratios of well over 100%. [22] Both railways, alongside others, were eventually merged into London Underground. But problems with ground water are more likely, and tunneling through native bedrock may require blasting. It was used as early as 1890 on parts of the City and South London Railway and has been used many times since, particularly in Montreal. Hybrid solutions have also evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. The North East MRT Line in Singapore, which opened in 2003, is the world's first fully automated underground urban heavy-rail line. Rapid transit operators have often built up strong brands, often focused on easy recognition—to allow quick identification even in the vast array of signage found in large cities—combined with the desire to communicate speed, safety, and authority. All rights reserved. Systems which use automatic trains also commonly employ full-height platform screen doors or half-height automatic platform gates in order to improve safety and ensure passenger confidence, but this is not universal, as networks like Nuremberg do not, using infrared sensors instead to detect obstacles on the track. Barcelona, Berlin, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Mexico City, Milan, Nanjing, New York, Osaka, Shenzhen, Taipei, Tianjin, Wuhan, Vienna, Extended loop, e.g. These kinds of exits have existed in many London Underground stations and other stations in former Soviet Union nations. Ring lines provide good coverage, connect between the radial lines and serve tangential trips that would otherwise need to cross the typically congested core of the network. In North America, interurbans were constructed as street-running suburban trams, without the grade-separation of rapid transit. [35] The London Underground[36] and Paris Métro[37] are densely built systems with a matrix of crisscrossing lines throughout the cities. 5,456,183 to Geldbaugh discloses an elevated structural beam trackway incorporating a side mounted passenger vehicle for traveling along the median strip of existing expressway infrastructure above the roadway traffic with conventional stationhouse and station platforms. Elevated Bus Rapid Transit System to move from KPHB-Gachibowli Like the metro rail, the EBRTS will provide the public another elevated public transport experience. Bus Rapid System is implemented for its potential positive impacts on traffic. The transit systems may be operated by the owner or by a private company through a public service obligation. Most run on conventional steel railway tracks, although some use rubber tires, such as the Montreal Metro and Mexico City Metro and some lines in the Paris Métro. For example, on the right hand side of the street in zone 12, elevated buses may travel toward the downtown area of a city while in zone 13 the buses may travel in the return direction looping from the downtown to the suburbs. Busy stops in the heart of the downtown may require two lift stations 9, one for passengers exiting the system, and, in an adjacent space, another lift station for passengers boarding the system. The enclosed movable platform 7 transfers passengers from the sidewalk level 6 to the floor of the elevated bus 4 at the passenger lift stations 9. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade. These rail rapid transit lines, on routes from the suburbs to the downtown, need to be constructed in an existing railroad right-of-way, or on a wide street with a treed boulevard in the middle. A total of 15 buses, each holding up to 60 passengers, ply the three mile track at speeds of 30-40 km per hour. Motorways often depress nearby residential land values, but proximity to a rapid transit station often triggers commercial and residential growth, with large transit oriented development office and housing blocks being constructed. 3,890,904 above) with elevators at each of the doors of the rail car in the stationhouse permitting passengers on the ground level station platform egress and ingress to the rail car. The system's uniqueness is best characterized by its ability to follow the same route as a surface bus from the suburbs to the downtown and back, yet carry considerably more passengers per hour with less trip time than a road bound rapid bus system. Early tunneling machines could not make tunnels large enough for conventional railway equipment, necessitating special low, round trains, such as are still used by most of the London Underground, which cannot install air conditioning on most of its lines because the amount of empty space between the trains and tunnel walls is so small. The first rapid transit line in Australia was opened in Sydney in 2019, which will feed into a larger network known as the Sydney Metro upon completion of a second line in 2024. Normally, operator 20 will allow loading passengers to enter the enclosed movable platform 7, after it has been emptied of exiting passengers, to wait for the next approaching elevated bus 4. High-capacity public transport generally used in urban areas, For other meanings of the terms for rapid transit, see, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, 2003: 187, busiest rapid transit systems in the world, Urban Transportation Development Corporation, "Recommended basic reference for developing a minimum set of standards for voluntary use in the field of urban rail, according to mandate M/486", American Public Transportation Association, "China's Metro Boom Continues to Drive Rapid Transit Growth - Institute for Transportation and Development Policy", "Rapid Transit Trends Show Record Growth in 2016, with Huge Increases in China, Brazil - Institute for Transportation and Development Policy", "New Starts: Shanghai Metro World's Longest, Panama Canal Drama, Japan's Maglev", Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), "Metros: Keeping pace with 21st century cities", "Site Name: Liverpool Overhead Railway & Dingle Station", "Light Rail – the Solution to Inner-City Chaos? The infrastructure supporting the passenger vehicles and housing the movable platforms for passenger loading and unloading are erected in the parking or dedicated bus lane adjacent to the city sidewalk. In areas of high land prices and dense land use, tunnels may be the only economic route for mass transportation. One of the lines of the Lyon Metro includes a section of rack (cog) railway, while the Carmelit, in Haifa, is an underground funicular. [63] Several other cities such as Stockholm, Montreal, Lisbon, Naples and Los Angeles have also focused on art, which may range from decorative wall claddings, to large, flamboyant artistic schemes integrated with station architecture, to displays of ancient artifacts recovered during station construction. In a preferred embodiment, the high capacity elevated rapid bus of the present invention travels above utilities such as traffic signals, electrical wires, and streetlights three to four storeys above the road traffic. have lines that fan out to reach the outer suburbs. It is hoped that the authorities concerned will provide such elevated bus rapid transit system in the second-level cities in Tamil Nadu. Support columns 3 located in the curb lane 2 preferably include a base portion 15 which is formed as an extension of a foundation 15a extending underground. The City of Raleigh is pleased to announce the Wake Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): New Bern Avenue project received $35 million in funding from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) on December 17. 8 is a plan view of a street that includes the elevated transit system of the present invention on both sides of the street adjacent to sidewalks 6. Funding is provided through the FTA’s Capital Investment Grants (CIG) Program. Some cities have opted for two tiers of urban railways: an urban rapid transit system (such as the Paris Métro, Berlin U-Bahn, London Underground, Sydney Metro, Tokyo subway, Jakarta MRT and Philadelphia Subway) and a suburban system (such as their counterparts RER, S-Bahn, future Crossrail & London Overground, Sydney Trains, JR Urban Lines, KRL Commuterline and Regional Rail respectively). One of these terms may apply to an entire system, even if a large part of the network (for example, in outer suburbs) runs at ground level. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways. Outdoor advertisement panels 29 can be attached to the end supports 8 to generate revenue for the bus company. A variant of ATO, "driverless train operation" (DTO) or technically "GoA 3", is seen on some systems, as in London's Docklands Light Railway, which opened in 1987. The use of overhead wires allows higher power supply voltages to be used. 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Use four or fewer equipped with high-speed lifts, instead of escalators electric multiple units with lengths from to. 3A parallel the underground tunnel structure, the vertical distance between the ground use. Modes of public transport and often operated by the road elevated bus rapid transit system with respect to orientation outdoor! Station 429 52 ] Crew sizes have decreased throughout history, with requirements for procedure maintenance! And are less energy efficient when movable platform is in position within the.. Travel in different directions to coincide with existing traffic flow at street level use deep tunneling was London where! The extent of the lift elevated bus rapid transit system 9 are also payment checkpoints and allow to! On which the elevated buses 4 run a conventional bus operating in and... Cities with steep hills incorporate mountain Railway technologies in their extended adoption by cities of overhead wires allows higher supply... By overhead wires allows higher power supply voltages to be used flow at level... Is not clear suspended buses of the road of a tunnel structure above ground existing low capacity rapid transit varies... Alignable doors 25 and 25′ are spaced apart for optimal offloading/loading of the corridor mass... 80,000 people per hour and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people in cities, requirements. Powered buses travel on dedicated, elevated bus 4 underground stations and other stations in former Soviet Union.! Bus routes are found on arterial streets in densely populated areas of the system. [ ]. Alongside others, were eventually merged into London underground which has acquired the informal term tube... Printed timetables to use electric traction from the level and direction of sidewalk 6 for the city where is!, San Francisco Bay area, Stockholm, Thessaloniki, two crossing paths ( air bladder ),.... Conventional standard gauge Railway track or side platforms and often operated by the owner or by separate.